9. Glossary

2.5D graphic A tactile graphic for visually impaired people. With a swell form graphic or printing with a Tiger embosser there is not only a 2D view, because lines, areas, dots, braille etc. are raised into the third dimension. However, since these are all the same height, we refer to them as 2.5D graphics. 8-Dot […]

8.5 Working with SVG files (using Fusion 360)

Most models are created based on a two-dimensional image. In most drawing programs it is possible to insert a graphic and then trace it. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) also offer the possibility of working directly with the lines and surfaces contained in the graphic. This saves a lot of time, especially for highly complex illustrations. […]

8.4 3D Scanning

What is a 3D scan? 3D scanning generates a digital representation of an object or person. The shape of the object is captured with a 3D scanner. Sensors collect data regarding the shape, depth and colour of the object and form a virtual representation from this. A point cloud representing the virtual image of the […]

8.3 Generating maps with touch-mapper.org

The Finnish developer Samuli Kärkkäinen has developed and published the online tool https://touch-mapper.org, which enables tactile maps to be generated for printing on a 3D printer. The map data is based on OpenStreetMap and is generated automatically. Touch Mapper generates street maps that non-sighted people can use to orientate themselves within cities. In a school […]

8.2 Links to other VIP databases

In addition to our database, the following databases can also be searched for models for teaching visually impaired students: https://btactile.com https://see3d.org https://medien.augenbit.de/

8.1 3D model databases (not specifically for VIP)

Models for teaching visually impaired learners can also sometimes be found in databases that are not aimed at this market: https://www.printables.com https://makerworld.com/en  https://www.thingiverse.com https://www.myminifactory.com https://cults3d.com

7.3 Painting

In most cases, 3D printed models for teaching visually impaired learners are printed in one colour. At the moment, the majority of 3D printers work with only one nozzle, so the models are therefore not multicoloured. If the models are used with sighted pupils, colours quickly play a decisive role. The special solution of changing […]

7.2 Gluing models

Gluing models is a proven technique that is quick and easy to carry out. Parts can be permanently bonded together. It is therefore often possible to print complex models as individual parts and then glue them together. For a durable bond it is important that the two surfaces to be glued are as flat as […]

7.1 Smoothing PLA

Smoothing 3D objects improves the surface quality and thereby the look of the model. This is of only secondary importance when working with visually impaired students. Nevertheless, it makes sense from time to time to reflect on the option of smoothing. After all, this optimises not only the optical surface quality but also the tactile […]

6.8 Topology in 3D meshes

This topic applies to several software solutions that are aimed at the general 3D production industry, such as Max, Maya, Blender, Zbrush etc. These programs allow the user to load and edit STL files. So it is possible not only to see the model, but also to edit and retopologise it. The problem with STL […]

6.7 Software Advices

This article is aimed at beginners in the field of 3D modelling who have little or no previous knowledge of software. After buying a 3D printer, it is only necessary to learn how to use the printer itself and a slicer. Ready-to-use models in STL or 3MF format can be downloaded from platforms such as […]

6.6 Level of detail

When creating models for teaching non-sighted students, choosing the right level of detail is an enormous challenge. On the one hand, teaching materials should transfer as much knowledge as possible and enable a great increase in cognition – on the other hand, teaching materials for non-sighted students should not be overloaded with information. The question […]